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The service strategies of liner shipping companies. Un espace maritime de circulation global. Tableau 1. Les 27 premiers armements mondiaux en Agrandir Original jpeg, k. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7.

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Figure 8. Tableau 2. Agrandir Original jpeg, 76k.

Tableau 3. Agrandir Original jpeg, 19k. In late-February , Reynaud told de Gaulle that he had been earmarked for command of an armoured division as soon as one became available. When Reynaud became prime minister in March he was reliant on Daladier's backing, so the job went instead to the politician Paul Baudouin.

In late-March de Gaulle was told by Reynaud that he would be given command of the 4th Armoured Division , due to form by 15 May. The Germans attacked the West on 10 May. General Georges told him it was his chance to implement his ideas. De Gaulle commandeered some retreating cavalry and artillery units and also received an extra half-brigade, one of whose battalions included some heavy B1 bis tanks.

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The attack at Montcornet , a key road junction near Laon, began around on 17 May. Outnumbered and without air support, he lost 23 of his 90 vehicles to mines, anti-tank weapons, or Stukas. On 18 May he was reinforced by two fresh regiments of armoured cavalry, bringing his strength up to vehicles. He attacked again on 19 May and his forces were once again devastated by German Stukas and artillery.

He ignored orders from General Georges to withdraw, and in the early afternoon demanded two more divisions from Touchon, who refused his request. Nevertheless, it was one of the few successes the French enjoyed while suffering defeats elsewhere across the country. He delayed his retreat until 20 May. On 21 May, at the request of propaganda officers, he gave a talk on French radio about his recent attack.

Despite being compulsorily retired as a colonel on 22 June see below he would wear the uniform of a brigadier-general for the rest of his life. On 28—29 May, de Gaulle attacked the German bridgehead south of the Somme at Abbeville , taking around German prisoners in the last attempt to cut an escape route for the Allied forces falling back on Dunkirk.

The future General Paul Huard, who served under de Gaulle at this time, recorded how he would often stand on a piece of high ground, keeping other officers literally at six yards' distance, subjecting his subordinates to harsh criticism and taking all decisions autocratically himself, behaviour consistent with his later conduct as a political leader.

Lacouture points out that for all his undoubted energy and physical courage there is no evidence in his brief period of command that he possessed the "hunter's eye" of the great battlefield commander, and that not a single one of his officers joined him in London, although some joined the Resistance in France. De Gaulle's rank of brigadier-general became effective on 1 June After a visit to his tailor to be fitted for his general's uniform, he visited Reynaud, who appears to have offered him a government job for the first time, then the commander-in-chief Maxime Weygand , who congratulated him on saving France's honour and asked him for his advice.

He made the same suggestion to Reynaud. He asked for an English-speaking aide and Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel was given the job. On 8 June de Gaulle visited Weygand, who believed it was "the end" and that after France was defeated Britain would also soon sue for peace.

He hoped that after an armistice the Germans would allow him to retain enough of a French Army to "maintain order" in France. He gave a "despairing laugh" when de Gaulle suggested fighting on.

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It was thought that half a million men could be evacuated to French North Africa , provided the British and French navies and air forces coordinated their efforts. In his memoirs de Gaulle mentioned his support for the proposal to continue the war from French North Africa, but at the time he was more in favour of the plan to form a " redoubt " in Brittany than he later admitted. Italy entered the war on 10 June. That day de Gaulle was present at two meetings with Weygand he only mentions one in his memoirs , one at the defence committee and a second where Weygand barged into Reynaud's office and demanded an armistice.

When Weygand asked de Gaulle, who wanted to carry on fighting, if he had "anything to suggest", de Gaulle replied that it was the government's job to give orders, not to make suggestions. De Gaulle wanted Paris to be stubbornly defended by de Lattre , but instead it was declared an open city. De Gaulle's fighting spirit made a strong impression on the British. He then returned to attend a cabinet meeting, at which it was clear that there was a growing movement for an armistice, and which decided that the government should move to Bordeaux rather than de Gaulle's preference for Quimper in Brittany.

This time few other major French figures were present apart from Reynaud and Baudoin. He was an hour late, and his account is not reliable. Reynaud demanded that France be released from the agreement which he had made with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in March , so that France could seek an armistice.

De Gaulle wrote that Churchill was sympathetic to France seeking an armistice, provided that an agreement was reached about what was to happen to the French fleet. This claim was later made by apologists for the Vichy Regime, e. However, is not supported by other eyewitnesses Churchill himself, Roland de Margerie , Spears who agree that Churchill said that he "understood" the French action but that he did not agree with it. De Gaulle was dissuaded from resigning by the Interior Minister Georges Mandel , who argued that the war was only just beginning, and that de Gaulle needed to keep his reputation unsullied.

De Gaulle arrived at Bordeaux on 14 June, and was given a new mission to go to London to discuss the potential evacuation to North Africa. He had a brief meeting with Admiral Darlan about the potential role of the French Navy. Next morning no aircraft could be found so he had to drive to Brittany, where he visited his wife and daughters, and his aged mother whom he never saw again, as she died in July , before taking a boat to Plymouth he asked the skipper if he would be willing to carry on the war under British flag , where he arrived on 16 June.

He ordered the boat Pasteur , with a cargo of munitions, to be diverted to a British port, which caused some members of the French Government to call for him to be put on trial. He telephoned Reynaud — they were cut off during the conversation and had to resume later — with the news that the British had agreed. De Gaulle was now in imminent danger of arrest.


Reynaud still had control of secret government funds until the handover of power the next day. It has been suggested that he ordered de Gaulle to go to London, but no written evidence has ever been found to confirm this. Georges Mandel also refused to come. At around on the morning of 17 June he flew to London on a British aircraft with Edward Spears.

The escape was hair-raising, with Spears' aide having to run to the hangar at the last minute to fetch a rope to tie on the luggage. Spears claimed that de Gaulle had been reluctant to come, and that he had pulled him into the aircraft at the last minute, although de Gaulle's biographer does not accept this. Jean Laurent brought , gold francs in secret funds provided to him by Reynaud.

Charles de Gaulle

De Gaulle landed at Heston Airport soon after on 17 June Duff Cooper Minister of Information had an advance copy of the text of the address, to which there were no objections. The cabinet eventually agreed after individual lobbying, as indicated by a handwritten amendment to the cabinet minutes. De Gaulle's Appeal of 18 June exhorted the French people not to be demoralized and to continue to resist the occupation of France. He also — apparently on his own initiative — declared that he would broadcast again the next day.

Few listened to it, although it was published in some newspapers in metropolitan mainland France. The speech was largely aimed at French soldiers who were then in Britain after being evacuated from Norway and Dunkirk ; most showed no interest in fighting for de Gaulle's Free French Forces and were repatriated back to France to become German prisoners of war.

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In his next broadcast on 19 June de Gaulle denied the legitimacy of the government at Bordeaux. The British Foreign Office protested to Churchill. De Gaulle also tried, largely in vain, to attract the support of French forces in the French Empire. After the armistice was signed on 21 June , de Gaulle spoke at on 22 June to denounce it. Jean Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought his appeal was "too personal" and went too far, and that French opinion would not rally to a man who was seen to be operating from British soil.

De Gaulle broadcast again on 24 June. The armistice took effect from on 25 June. He claimed erroneously that the French fleet was to be handed over to the Germans. De Gaulle had little success in attracting the support of major figures. Roland de Margerie stayed in France despite his opposition to the armistice. At this time de Gaulle's followers consisted of a secretary of limited competence, three colonels, a dozen captains, a famous law professor Cassin , and three battalions of legionnaires who had agreed to stay in Britain and fight for him. For a time the New Hebrides were the only French colony to back de Gaulle.

He considered withdrawing to Canada to live as a private citizen and waited five days before broadcasting. Spears called on de Gaulle on 5 July and found him "astonishingly objective" and acknowledging that it was the right thing from the British point of view. Spears reported to Churchill that de Gaulle had shown "a splendid dignity".

In his broadcast of 8 July he spoke of the "pain and anger" caused by the attack and that it was a "hateful tragedy not a glorious battle", but that one day the enemy would have used the ships against England or the French Empire, and that the defeat of England would mean "bondage forever" for France. They will either go down both together or both together they will win". On Bastille Day 14 July de Gaulle led a group of between and sailors to lay a wreath at the statue of Ferdinand Foch at Grosvenor Gardens.